DaeTech About DaeTech
Air travel is arguably the safest mode of transportation, on a per mile basis, with the aerospace industry representing a driving economic force in the United States contributing to more than $1 trillion annually to local, state and national economies. The stability of the aviation economy is fundamentally driven by the safety and reliability of air transportation and air commerce. Safety in Aviation begins with a Safe aircraft, but continuous operational safety is provided through a multi-tiered safety strategy encompassing pilot training and qualifications, rigorous aircraft maintenance and Type Design conformity, Airspace Design and operational procedures and an Air Traffic Control system that is second to none in the world. The Air Traffic Control System includes a complex ground Radar surveillance infrastructure, highly automated computer information systems, thorough Air traffic control procedures and an army of highly trained Air Traffic Controllers manning the scopes from coast to coast providing a range of services to as many as 8,000 aircraft that may be airborne at any one time in the National Airspace System.

Digital Aerospace Engineering Technologies, Inc. knows SAFETY

Aircraft and Product Certification

The process of Aircraft and Product Certification can be a daunting challenge for those unfamiliar with airworthiness certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers and appliances. Complex integrated and distributed avionic and information systems can strike anxiety in even seasoned aviation veterans in demonstrating compliance to stringent safety criteria for airworthiness and operational approval for airborne systems and equipment. DaeTech can navigate the rugged terrain along the path of product certification. DaeTech knows Product Certification.

Safety Analysis

Safety is defined as the freedom from those conditions that can Cause Death, Injury, Occupational Illness, or Damage to or Loss of Equipment or Property, or Damage to the Environment. Safety Analysis is the process of systematically identifying the risk of harm to people or property resulting from the exposure of hazards, with the objective of limiting those risks to an acceptable level, either through limiting the severity of outcome or by reducing the likelihood of occurrence. Fundamentally, the objective of safety assessment process is to ensure, through the disciplined application of controls and mitigations that there is inverse relationship between the severity of a hazard's effects and its probability of occurrence. In simple terms, hazards that result in severe injury or death should happen much less frequently than those than result in discomfort or mild distress. Safety Analyses may take several forms including operational and functional hazard assessment, event tree analysis, fault tree analysis, failure modes effects and criticality analysis, common cause analysis, zonal safety analysis, particular risks analysis and common cause analysis. Each analysis methodology is designed to ensure that risks are controlled to an acceptable level through designing for minimum risk, incorporating safety devices (e.g. interlocks, monitors), providing cautions and warnings or through procedures and training. Although there are multiple references and guidance on developing safety analyses (e.g. SAE ARP4761, ARP4754, MIL-STD-882, FAA AC 23/25-1309) they all share the common objective of mitigating safety risks to acceptable levels through structured analysis and risk mitigation strategies. Regardless of the methods and tools required or preferred, DaeTech knows Safety Analysis.

Software Safety

Safety Critical systems are employing software and complex hardware at an ever increasing rate and having a dramatic improvement in safety for functions that are more suited for to computer software than those traditionally implemented by mechanical systems, simple electrical system or humans. Functions involving precision control of moving parts, those requiring computation of dynamic conditions, and those for continuous status monitoring or detecting small variations or changes in state are particularly suited for computers and software than crude mechanical instrumentation or human vigilance, recognition or interpretation. Safety critical software has proliferated in medical devices, manufacturing processes and complex control systems in every product domain ranging from ovens to aircraft flight and engine controls. A unique aspect of software is that it does not fail in the traditional sense that a switch, relay, or actuator may fail. When software fails to perform its intended function, the culprit is typically an error in requirements, design, algorithms, exception handling or software code rather than an actual failure of the software in operation. Subsequently, the analysis of software has focused on the sufficiency, clarity and correctness of requirements, the traceability of requirements into software low level requirements, architecture and computer code and requirements-based testing. More comprehensive testing may include robustness testing, structural coverage testing and analysis in addition to condition and decision coverage analysis and validation of algorithms and data structures. In other words, software safety has been achieved through the application of rigorous software life-cycle development processes, rather than the traditional analysis of failure modes, effects and probability assessment. Like system safety analysis, there are many software development process models used in the development of software, but many of them, although recognized in the mass software development industry have significant shortfalls in achieving software integrity sufficient for safety critical applications. The best of the current processes used include RTCA/DO-178 and the recently published MIL-STD-882-E. DaeTech knows software safety.

Airman Certification

Aircraft are operated by certificated airmen who have demonstrated knowledge and practical standards for piloting aircraft in the national airspace system in compliance with applicable operating regulations. These piloting skills and knowledge go far beyond basic stick and rudder flying and involve the use of airborne communications, navigation and surveillance systems to precisely and safely put their aircraft where they need to be, when they need to be there, smoothly and efficiently - all the while maintaining awareness of the airspaces and rules in which they are operating. Pilots work with Air Traffic Controllers and manage systems and equipment failures that may occur during any given flight. The integration of the human pilot with his aircraft is an essential part of aviation safety to ensure that the pilots are adequately trained and qualified to operate their aircraft in the national airspace system. Aircraft are maintained by certificated aircraft and power plant mechanics and inspectors who have demonstrated knowledge and practical standards for ensuring that aircraft are properly maintained, that they conform to their approved Type Design and are in a condition for safe operation. This is the basis for the issuance and continuity of a Certificate of Airworthiness for US civil registered aircraft. Air Traffic Controllers also hold an airman certificate and are subject to a structured process of learning air traffic control procedures and techniques including a specialized controller training curriculum provided by the FAA. Like pilots, Air Traffic Controllers must demonstrate proficiency through knowledge and practical standards, know the function and limitations of the air traffic automation systems and comply with the meticulous separation procedures established over years of aviation service history. Air Traffic Controllers keep aircraft safely separated from each other and from other hazards like obstacles, terrain and assist in hazardous weather avoidance from the time an aircraft enters a taxi-way for taxiing, to take-off, climb and departure, through the cruise phase of flight with aircraft passing each other at over 1000 miles per hour to the descent, landing and taxing to the gate at their destination. DaeTech knows Airmen Certification.

Airspace Design

The National Airspace System is constructed from a complicated set of invisible structures in air that designate how aircraft are envisioned to operate in various environments. These structures are classified by classes like "Class A, Class B or Class C" and have sizes shapes and locations designed to ensure the safe and efficient flow of traffic in the National Airspace System. Each class of airspace may have its own set of rules, procedures and even aircraft equipage requirements that are required to ensure safe operations in the airspace. Beyond the airspace classes, the National Airspace System is shrouded in a network of invisible route structures, called airways or jetways that establish highways in the skies. These airways and jetways are connected by terrestrial; ground based aids to air navigation, called a VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range or "VOR", or by specified locations called "fixes" that are designated by five letter identifiers and depicted on aeronautical navigational charts. Airspace design has an even further level of granularity in detailed arrival and departure procedures using navigation fixes or VOR's for transiting into and out of the busy and traffic dense airspaces around airports, called terminal areas, and typically designated as either Class B or Class C airspace. These procedures provide instructions and routing to sequence into the terminal areas and terminate at an initial approach fix for performing instrument approaches to land at an airport. Instrument approach procedures are designed to provide lateral guidance, in the case of non-precision approach procedures, to align with the runway of intended landing, or in the case of precision approach procedures, both lateral and vertical guidance through terrestrial navigation aids like an Instrument Landing System, or ILS. Terrestrial Navigation Aids like VOR's, ILS's and Automatic Direction Finders (ADF) are implemented and maintained by the Federal Aviation Administration to provide reliable, dependable and safe mode of air navigation and are strategically placed across the country. Global Positioning System (GPS) is also used for air navigation and includes a GPS receiver installed on the aircraft with a navigation database of airspace fixes and terrestrial navigation aids to provide a means for en-route navigation, arrival and departure procedures and instrument approaches. DaeTech knows airspace design.

Air Traffic Control

The primary purposes of Air Traffic Control includes mitigation of collision risk between aircraft in flight through the application of separation standards, to organize and expedite the safe and efficient flow of air traffic, and to provide information and other support for pilots (e.g. pilot reports, flight following and hazardous weather avoidance). The Air Traffic Control system consists of a network of primary and secondary Radar sensors distributed across the country to provide pervasive radar surveillance of the skies for most of the airspace in the contiguous United States from the surface to 60,000+ feet. The terminal areas, with a relatively high density of air traffic in close proximity to one another, are serviced by Airport Surveillance Radars (ASR) usually located at an airport spinning at 12 times per minute with a an effective service volume of approximately 60 nautical miles in radius from the radar sensor. The higher power Air Route Surveillance Radars (ARSR), spin a slower 5 times per minute but have a service volume of around 200 to 250 nautical mile radius from the sensor and provide surveillance for both FAA Air Traffic Control in addition to providing surveillance for air defense to the Aerospace Defense Command. The network of Radar sensors stretched across the country, in addition to new surveillance data provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), provide surveillance data to a sophisticated automation system providing data to air traffic controllers. Controllers providing radar separation services in addition to flow control to manage the flow of traffic to a manageable level to controllers working traffic in various sectors during the busiest, peak traffic times. The automation systems include a suite of algorithms and tools to identify aircraft on potentially converging flight paths or at potentially unsafe altitudes due to terrain and obstacles. Aircraft systems (e.g. ADS-B and airborne transponders) interface with the ground surveillance network to provide the highest level of information to controllers providing separation services. When the Air Traffic Control surveillance system does fail or controllers make errors in the application of separation standards, aircraft are equipped with collision avoidance systems (e.g. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II), to provide an additional safety net when these extremely rare events do occur, altogether creating one of the safest air transportation systems in the world. DaeTech

Rules and Regulations

Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14CFR) codify the rules and regulations governing the procedures, aircraft certification and airworthiness, airmen certification, airspace, air traffic, airports and operational rules, among others. 14CFR Subchapter C includes rules for the certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances and provides airworthiness regulations specific to standard, normal, utility and commuter category aircraft (14CFR Part 23) and transport category aircraft (14CFR Part 25) in addition to standard and normal category rotorcraft (14CFR Part 27) and transport category rotorcraft (14 CFR Part 29). Aircraft engine airworthiness standards are codified in 14 CFR Part 33 and propellers in 14CFR Part 35. All of the 14CFR Subpart C requirements provide airworthiness standards for civil aircraft and do not apply aircraft designated as "public" aircraft operations operated by the military or other government agencies. These standards are basically the requirement structures for which a manufacturer must demonstrate compliance in order to be eligible to receive a design approval (e.g. Type Certificate) from which to build an aircraft representing the type design. Once an aircraft is shown to comply with its approved type design and found to be in condition for safe operation, it is eligible to receive a Certificate of Airworthiness to operate in the national airspace system. The operational rules under 14CFR subchapter F prescribe general operating and flight rules (14CFR Part 91) which apply to all aircraft, including public aircraft in addition to those that are reserved for Air Carrier operations (14 CFR Part 121) and air taxi (14 CFR Part 135). Aviation is a complex synergy of people, procedures, equipment and regulations that interact with each other to ensure safe, efficient, reliable and continuous operation of aircraft in the national airspace system, 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, 365 days per year, without interruption. DaeTech knows aviation, DaeTech knows how.

Products, Services and Pricing Structure

Product/Service Description

Full-Scale Development

Review, Analysis and Recommendations

Operations Analysis and Development

Concept of Operations and Analysis Documentation

$150.00/hour

$80.00/hour

Operational Hazard Assessment

$180.00/hour

$80.00/hour

Operational Services and Environment Description

$180.00/hour

$80.00/hour

Operational Procedures Development and Documentation

$150.00/hour

$80.00/hour

Operational Test and Evaluation Plan

$200.00/hour

$80.00/hour

On-site Training Operational Safety & Analysis

$5,000.00 per day + expenses

On-site Training The National Airspace System

$6,000.00 per day + expenses

On-site Training Federal Aviation Regulations Decoded

$6,000.00 per day + expenses

Engineering Design and Analysis

System Requirements Analysis and Definition

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

System Design Documentation

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

System Test and Evaluation Planning

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Product and System Qualification and Certification

Certification Basis Development

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Compliance Checklist Database Development

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Product Certification Plan

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Technical Certification Plan

$300.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Preliminary System Safety Assessment

$180.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Functional Hazard Assessment

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Event Tree Analysis

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Fault Tree Analysis

$300.00/hour

$150.00/hour

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

$300.00/hour

$150.00/hour

Zonal Safety Analysis

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Particular Risk Assessment

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Common Cause Analysis

$300.00/hour

$150.00/hour

On-Site Training Product and System Certification

$6,000.00 per day + expenses

On-Site Training System Safety

$6,000.00 per day + expenses

Software Process, Design and Development

Plan for Software/Hardware Aspects of Certification

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Software Requirements Analysis and Definition

$300.00/hour

$150.00/hour

Software Design Documentation

$300.00/hour

$150.00/hour

Software Test Case Development

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Software Test Plan

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Software Development Plans and Development Standards

$180.00/hour

$80.00/hour

On-site Training Safety Critical Software Development

$8,000.00 per day + expenses

Engineering Management

Organizational/Structural Assessment

$180.00/hour

$80.00/hour

Program/Project Planning and Development

$180.00/hour

$80.00/hour

Program/Project Scheduling and Assessment

$200.00/hour

$100.00/hour

Business Process Analysis

$180.00/hour

$80.00/hour